Trina Himenez

Ideal Data On The Subject Of Foot Disorders

Apparent Leg Length Discrepancy Therapy

Overview

The two major categorizations of LLD are structural and functional. A third more minor category is environmental. In structural LLD there is an actual anatomical difference in the bones of the lower extremities where one side becomes shorter than the other. This type of LLD may be genetic, where the person is born in this way. In other cases it may be due to injury or infection through the growth phases of early childhood or adolescence. Some spinal abnormalities like scoliosis can also cause this condition. Functional LLD is where the bones are not the cause of difference but a muscle or pelvic condition has the effect of weakening the leg on one side. Conditions that can cause this are muscle inflexibility, adduction contractures and pelvic obliquity (amongst others). The third less severe category of environmental LLD is caused by discrepancies in the surface that the feet and legs are resting or walking on. Banked, uneven or curved surfaces can all cause environmental LLD. In LLD the asymmetric nature of the legs in relation to hips and back caused the centre of gravity to shift from its natural position. This then results in the body attempting to compensate by either tilting the pelvic areas towards the shorter side, increased knee flexing on the longer side, flexion of the ankle plantar and foot supination towards the shorter side.Leg Length Discrepancy

Causes

There are many causes of leg length discrepancy. Structural inequality is due to interference of normal bone growth of the lower extremity, which can occur from trauma or infection in a child. Functional inequality has many causes, including Poliomyelitis or other paralytic deformities can retard bone growth in children. Contracture of the Iliotibial band. Scoliosis or curvature of the spine. Fixed pelvic obliquity. Abduction or flexion contraction of the hip. Flexion contractures or other deformities of the knee. Foot deformities.

Symptoms

The effects of limb length discrepancy vary from patient to patient, depending on the cause and size of the difference. Differences of 3 1/2 percent to 4 percent of the total length of the leg (about 4 cm or 1 2/3 inches in an average adult) may cause noticeable abnormalities when walking. These differences may require the patient to exert more effort to walk. There is controversy about the effect of limb length discrepancy on back pain. Some studies show that people with a limb length discrepancy have a greater incidence of low back pain and an increased susceptibility to injuries. Other studies do not support this finding.

Diagnosis

Limb length discrepancy can be measured by a physician during a physical examination and through X-rays. Usually, the physician measures the level of the hips when the child is standing barefoot. A series of measured wooden blocks may be placed under the short leg until the hips are level. If the physician believes a more precise measurement is needed, he or she may use X-rays. In growing children, a physician may repeat the physical examination and X-rays every six months to a year to see if the limb length discrepancy has increased or remained unchanged. A limb length discrepancy may be detected on a screening examination for curvature of the spine (scoliosis). But limb length discrepancy does not cause scoliosis.

Non Surgical Treatment

Heel lifts and sole lifts are simple ways Pedorthists can compensate for leg length deficiencies. These small modifications can make a tremendous difference to a person?s comfort, balance and mobility. Although people do not always know if they have LLD if you have any of the symptoms I have mentioned you should consult a Pedorthist as treating your condition early will reduce the development of serious problems later on.

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Surgical Treatment

Many people undergo surgery for various reasons - arthritis, knee replacement, hip replacement, even back surgery. However, the underlying cause of leg length inequality still remains. So after expensive and painful surgery, follow by time-consuming and painful rehab, the true culprit still remains. Resuming normal activities only continues to place undue stress on the already overloaded side. Sadly so, years down the road more surgeries are recommended for other joints that now endure the excessive forces.
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